Reference List 001
The Unabomber Case Timeline
The Unabomber Pages
(Later, the bomber was identified as Ted Kaczynski.)
May 5, 1982
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tenn.
A parcel addressed to Patrick Fischer, head of the computer science department, explodes, injuring his secretary, Janet Smith. Fischer is giving a series of lectures in Puerto Rico when the package is forwarded from Pennsylvania State University, where he taught before coming to Nashville. Canceled stamps were used to mail the parcel from Provo, Utah, causing investigators to consider that the bomb may have been intended for LeRoy Bearnson, an electrical engineering professor at Brigham Young University, who is listed as the return address.
July 2, 1982
University of California, Berkeley.
Engineering professor Diogenes J. Angelakos picks up what he believes to be a can of some sort left in the fourth-floor faculty break room of Cory Hall, which houses the computer science department. The small metal pipe bomb explodes, causing serious injuries.
May 15, 1985
University of California, Berkeley.
The Unabomber strikes Cory Hall again. This time, John E. Hauser, an Air Force pilot, engineering student and aspiring astronaut, looks for an owner's identification on a stack of three-ring binders left in the building's computer lab. He picks up the items, triggering an explosion that claims part of the vision in his left eye and four fingers from his right hand and severs two arteries in his forearm. Engineering professor Diogenes J. Angelakos, a victim of the bomber nearly three years before, is across the hall when the blast strikes. He fashions a tourniquet from a tie for Hauser's arm.
June 13, 1985
Boeing Aircraft Co., Auburn, Wash.
An employee in Boeing's Fabrication Division opens a package to discover a bomb that does not detonate. A bomb squad safely disarms the device, which was mailed from Oakland, Calif., just before the second explosion at U.C. Berkeley. The package had been left in Boeing's internal mail because it was not addressed to any specific person.
No one hurt.
Nov. 15, 1985
Ann Arbor, Mich.
Research assistant Nicklaus Suino suffers powder burns and shrapnel wounds when he opens a package bomb disguised as a manuscript at the home of University of Michigan psychology professor James V. McConnell. McConnell, who is in the room at the time of the explosion, loses part of his hearing. A letter postmarked Salt Lake City is attached to the package and reads, "I'd like you to read this book. ... Everybody in your position should read this book."
Dec. 11, 1985
RenTech owner Hugh C. Scrutton stops on his way to lunch to remove what looks to be a road hazard in the parking lot behind his Howe Avenue computer rental store. The object, actually a bomb filled with nail fragments, explodes. It rips Scrutton's chest open and penetrates his heart with shrapnel.
Feb. 20, 1987
CAAMS Inc., Salt Lake City.
A situation similar to the explosion in Sacramento, this blast results in only injuries. Store co-owner Gary Wright is injured when he stops in the parking lot to move a road hazard — a bag of wooden 2-by-4s with nails sticking out. A secretary who saw a man with a hooded sweatshirt and aviator sunglasses leave the bag in the parking lot becomes the Unabomber's first eyewitness.
June 22, 1993
A bomb injures Dr. Charles Epstein, a world renowned geneticist at the University of California, San Francisco, when he opens a package mailed to his home. He suffers a broken arm, severe abdominal injuries and the loss of several fingers on his right hand. The return address on the package is that of James Hill, chairman of the chemistry department at California State University, Sacramento.
June 24, 1993
Yale University, New Haven, Conn.
Computer scientist David Gelernter loses sight in one eye, hearing in one ear and part of his right hand when he opens a package mailed to his office. The explosion also wounds the Yale professor in the chest. The parcel's return address is that of Mary Jane Lee, a computer science professor at California State University, Sacramento. Gelernter reportedly dragged himself from his office, down five flights of stairs, to the university medical clinic a block away. A few hours later, an anonymous caller rings the hospital where Gelernter's psychiatrist brother, Joel, works warning, "You are next."
June 24, 1993
New York City.
Warren Hoge, assistant managing editor of The New York Times, receives a letter from a person or people claiming to be an anarchist group called "FC." The writer notes that the letter's postmark precedes a newsworthy event and that the FBI is aware of the group. The letter, mailed from Sacramento just before the explosions that injured Dr. Charles Epstein and David Gelernter, also includes the number 553-25-4394 to ensure that future communication from the group is genuine.
Dec. 10, 1994
North Caldwell, N.J.
New York City advertising executive Thomas Mosser prepares to go Christmas tree shopping with his wife and daughters. In the kitchen of his home, he opens a package roughly the size and shape of two videocassettes, setting off a fatal explosion. Mosser's family is home but unharmed. Months later the Unabomber would take responsibility for the package, mailed from San Francisco, claiming that Mosser was targeted for his public relations firm's work for Exxon Corp., the company whose tanker spilled oil in Alaska's Prince William Sound.
April 24, 1995
A package mailed to the California Forestry Association, too difficult for the office receptionist to open, is handed over to Gilbert B. Murray, the timber lobbying group's president. The parcel explodes when opened, killling Murray with a force so great it pushes nails from the walls of other offices in the same building. The package is addressed to Murray's predecessor, William Dennison, and bears the return address of Closet Dimensions, a custom furniture company in Oakland, Calif.
April 24, 1995
New York City.
The New York Times receives a letter from the Unabomber, billing himself as "the terrorist group FC," which promises to stop sending bombs if a 29,000- to 37,000-word article written by the group is printed in a national periodical such as the Times, Newsweek or TIME magazine. The bomber also demands that three yearly installments be published to clarify material in the treatise and rebut criticisms of it.
June 27, 1995
Through a letter sent to the San Francisco Chronicle, the Unabomber threatens to blow up an airliner out of Los Angeles International Airport prompting a nationwide crackdown on airport security. The following a day, in a letter to The New York Times, the bomber claims the threat is a ruse.
Sept. 19, 1995
The Washington Post prints the Unabomber's manifesto in an eight-page supplement. The newspaper shares the costs, estimated to be between $30,000 and $40,000, with The New York Times. A few days later, a 72-word passage, inadvertently omitted by a typist, also is published.
April 3, 1996
Theodore Kaczynski, a former UC Berkeley professor living as a recluse in a one-room cabin without electricity for decades, is arrested at his Montana home for possession of bomb components. He is suspected of being the notorious Unabomber.
June 18, 1996
A federal grand jury returns a 10-count indictment charging suspected Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski with four separate bombings that killed two individuals and injured two others.
June 23, 1996
Theodore Kaczynski arrives in Sacramento and is booked into county jail to await his first court appearance. His cell includes a toilet, sink, running water and electric lights — comforts his Montana cabin lacked.
June 25, 1996
In a brief federal court appearance, a pale and rumpled Theodore Kaczynski pleads not guilty to charges that he carried out four bombings, two of them fatal.
May 15, 1997
Following the direction of U.S. Attorney General Janet Reno, prosecutors file papers in federal court confirming their intent to pursue the death penalty. Theodore Kaczynski's mother and brother, who campaigned passionately for his life to be spared if he is convicted, are devastated by the news.
June 27, 1997
Judge Burrell rules that incriminating evidence from Theodore Kaczynski's mountain cabin, including a homemade bomb and a detailed journal, can be introduced at his upcoming trial. Kaczynski's lawyers had contended that the evidence should be thrown out because the government lied to obtain a search warrant for the Montana shack in April 1996.
Sept. 3, 1997
Theodore Kaczynski is quietly moved to the Federal Correctional Institution in Dublin, about 20 miles southeast of Oakland, after he complains about noise and lack of sleep at the Sacramento County Jail. The Alameda County prison has housed such famous inmates as newspaper heiress Patricia Hearst, Hollywood madam Heidi Fleiss and junk bond king Michael Milken.
Nov. 12, 1997
Amid reports that discussion of a plea bargain -- admittance of guilt in exchange for a life sentence -- is ongoing, Theodore Kaczynski's trial begins with jury selection.
Jan. 5, 1998
Opening statements, scheduled to begin today, are postponed until later in the week after Theodore Kaczynski requests a meeting with the judge to discuss his displeasure with his attorneys, who want to use a mental defect defense despite his protests. Kaczynski ignores his mother and brother, both in the courtroom, whom he hasn't seen in more than 10 years.
Jan. 7, 1998
Theodore Kaczynski asks the judge to allow him to fire his court-appointed public defenders and instead use J. Tony Serra, a San Francisco lawyer who has agreed to represent the Unabomber suspect for free. Judge Burrell denies Kaczynski's request, saying it is too late to switch attorneys.
Jan. 8, 1998
Opening statements are once again stalled when Theodore Kaczynski stops the proceedings, this time to ask that he defend himself. Judge Burrell says Kaczynski must undergo psychological exams, which he shunned in the past, before a decision can be made. Kaczynski agrees. Shortly after, reports surface that the defendant attempted suicide the previous night by hanging himself with his underwear.
Jan. 17, 1998
Dr. Sally Johnson, a government psychiatrist, reports that Theodore Kaczynski is competent to stand trial, but also probably a paranoid schizophrenic, as his lawyers have maintained. Talk of a plea bargain resumes as Kaczynski is taken off jail suicide watch.
Jan. 22, 1998
The judge rejects Theodore Kaczynski's request for self-representation. The defendant agrees to plead guilty in exchange for life in prison.
May 4, 1998
Following emotional testimony from his victims and their families, Unabomber Theodore Kaczynski is formally sentenced to four consecutive life terms plus 30 years. He speaks briefly, stating he expects in the future to respond to the prosecution's sentencing memorandum and "the many falsehoods that have been propagated about me."
High Court affirms life sentence for Wakaoji kidnappers
MANILA, Sept. 30 Kyodo
The Philippine Supreme Court on Thursday upheld a lower court decision imposing life imprisonment on two men convicted in the 1986 kidnapping of former Mitsui and Co. executive Nobuyuki Wakaoji.
The Supreme Court, however, dropped the Binan, Laguna Regional Trial Court's order for the accused to return 3 million U.S. dollars allegedly paid for his release.
Wakaoji was abducted Nov. 15, 1986 and was released unharmed after 137 days. He was the manager of the Manila office of Mitsui at the time of his kidnapping.
The High Court said it was sufficiently proven that Ireneo Fajardo and his cousin Ruperto Fajardo were guilty of kidnapping and serious illegal detention.
The Supreme Court, however, said it could not be fully established that 3 million dollars in ransom had been paid.
Twelve men and several unknown accomplices were charged in the kidnapping of Wakaoji, but only Ireneo and Ruperto, along with a third man, Simpliciano Atienza, were tried. The others remain at large.
Atienza was acquitted by the lower court.
Wakaoji was kidnapped as he was driving back to Manila after playing golf in Canlubang, Laguna, south of Manila, with other Mitsui executives.
Izu Oshima: Tokyo's Own Island Getaway
Usually, when people think of Tokyo, they imagine an overcrowded metropolis. Some, at least city-dwellers, don’t necessarily consider it an ideal vacation spot. In fact, Tokyo Prefecture is home to a chain of 11 major islands, the Izu Island group and the Ogasawara group, stretching to the south as far as 1,033 kilometers away. Oshima, the largest and closest to Tokyo, sports its own active volcano, Mt. Mihara, adding a dramatic facet to Tokyo Prefecture’s already impressive resumé.
Mt. Mihara, also nicknamed “Gojinka” (god of eruption), last had a major eruption on November 15, 1986, when it spewed lava into the air and in red-hot rivers flowing down from its rim. All the 10,000 inhabitants escaped the island that day and had to live in shelters for a month.
At 758 meters, Mt. Mihara is an easy stroll from the trail entrance to the top and features a large, distinct crater that one can hike around in about one hour. At the rim, is a small observation building and Mihara Shrine, which astonishingly survived the ‘86 blast undamaged.
Behind the mountain is the Urasabaku “wasteland,” a large, striking swath of black sand and rocks, remnants of the magma churned up from the earth. The area has an otherworldly beauty to it, quite a contrast to the rest of the island. The region is easy to walk but can only be reached by four-wheel drive vehicle or a longer walk from the road.
Oshima’s softer side and other claim to fame is its abundance of Camellia trees. Their blooming season lasts from January to March, which although possibly a chilly time to visit, coincides with the clearest weather of the year, providing excellent views of Mt. Mihara, the surrounding nature, and Mt. Fuji in the distance.
Oshima boasts upwards of 450 types of Camellia tree, which typically exhibit red or white flowers. While they can be found all over the island, probably the best place to see the trees in bloom is Oshima Park. At the Camellia Museum there, you can get information on the different practical uses of the oil extracted from the Camellia seed. At the same location, during blooming season, is the Camellia Festival, from the end of January to the end of March.
Oshima has its fair share of museums to visit too. The Izu-Oshima Museum of Volcanoes is easily the biggest and most elaborate museum on the island. Inside are numerous, well-designed exhibits, not only explaining Mihara, but volcanoes from around the world, with scores of pictures, video and rock samples. English descriptions accompany most of the displays.
If something more active is desired, physical activities like scuba diving or cycling can be done, but for a more traditional Japanese experience, the Furusato Taikenkan allows visitors to learn to play Japan’s taiko drums. It’s a lot of fun and not too difficult, given the fairly easy routine they teach. The whole session costs 1,050 yen, or 2,100 yen to keep the bachi (drum sticks), a more unique souvenir compared to the typical keychain or local cookies.
With an active volcano in the middle of the island, it should be of no surprise that Oshima has its fair share of onsen (hot springs). The outdoor ones usually face Mt. Mihara or the sea. Next to Motomachi Hama no Yu (Seaside Hot Spring) is a curious sight. A large, stone bust of Godzilla (Gojira in Japanese), Japan’s internationally famous monster, sits in the middle of a small park with a sign querying, “Why is Godzilla here? Do you Know?” The sign goes on to explain that Toho Studios chose Oshima’s volcano as the site of Godzilla’s final imprisonment in their 1984 film, simply titled “Gojira.” The sign finally warns not to wake the monster from its sleep.
English on Oshima is hit or miss, although there is a concerted effort underway to make Oshima more English-friendly for foreign visitors. At the port of Motomachi, for example, a well-marked map of the island greets guests as they walk out of the port building. Also nearby is a small travel information center with limited literature in English. Throughout the island, street and path signs and point-of-interest markers usually display English as well, convenient when driving or cycling. However, museum information has a spottier record, some offering only Japanese.
As far as transportation goes, buses run around the island and to many of the main spots. Rental car is always the most convenient way to go, and there’s relatively little traffic, making it fairly easy driving. Taxis can be found at the ports and can be called upon later if needed. Bicycle and motor scooter rentals are also available. The former is not ideal for the interior’s steep, windy roads, but is great for a relaxing ride by the shore.
Access to Oshima is a little pricey, but there are a few options. Jet foil from Takeshiba Port (Minato Ward, Tokyo) is a practical compromise of price and speed and can get you to the island in about 1 hour and 45 minutes for roughly 16,500 yen (round trip). Airplane, from Haneda Airport, can reach Oshima in a quick 35 minutes, if you don’t mind shelling out 15,000 yen each way. A day trip is possible, but no matter how long you choose to stay or what method you choose to get there, Tokyo’s big island is definitely worthy of some exploration.
Japan-North Korea Meeting
Prime Minister of Japan May 22, 2004
Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi visited North Korea for a second time since his visit a year and eight months ago in September 2002 and held a meeting with Mr. Kim Jong-Il, the Chairman of the National Defense Committee of North Korea. Prime Minister Koizumi arrived at Pyongyang's Sunan Airport in a government plane and then proceeded to the Daedong Guest House, where the meeting with Chairman Kim was held.
In the meeting, the two leaders reconfirmed the Japan-DPRK Pyongyang Declaration, which includes nuclear development and missile issues and agreed on having the authorities directly in charge discuss the issues toward the resumption of normalization talks.
Further, the return to Japan of five family members of the abductees was decided and agreement was promptly made for a full-scale reinvestigation with the participation of Japan on those abductees whose whereabouts are unknown.
With regard to the nuclear development and missile issues, Chairman Kim stated that the primary goal is the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula and North Korea intends to make efforts toward a peaceful resolution through the Six-Party Talks and reconfirmed that North Korea will maintain a moratorium on missile launches.
In addition to this, Prime Minister Koizumi announced his intention to provide food and pharmaceutical supplies to North Korea as a measure of humanitarian assistance through international organizations.
At a press conference afterward, Prime Minister Koizumi said, "I strongly expect that my visit to North Korea will prove to be a turning point in the realization of normalization."
Prime Minister Koizumi departed for Japan the same evening with the five family members of the abductees.
Claude Ciari Biography
French guitarist Claude Ciari has the rare distinction of being the first Caucasian to run for a seat in the upper house of the government of Japan. While he was not elected, he used the opportunity to publicly challenge what he felt was a stupid law for foreigners, a stance that only furthered his popularity in Japan. Ciari was born in Nice on the French Riviera in 1944. He started to play guitar when he was 11, and by 16 he was proficient enough to join a rock group, Les Champions, featuring himself on lead guitar along with Jean-Claude Chane (singer), Alain Santamaria (guitar), Daniel Kaufman (bass guitar), and Willy Lewis (drums). Les Champions, with a sound closer to the Jordanaires than the more popular instrumental groups of the era, recorded several singles, and even toured France with Gene Vincent in October 1962. Les Champions were not very original, and Ciari became frustrated when the band decided to become the support band for French singer Danyel Gerard.
Ciari left the group in 1964, and began his career as a solo artist. Solo success was immediate -- his first album included an instrumental rhumba, "La Playa," which caught on in the bossa nova fervor of the time and became a big hit in France and over 40 other countries. At 20 years old, Ciari had sold several million records, and began a prolific and acclaimed career. The first Batacuda's Seven LP, recorded in 1970, was his first dedicated to exploring Latin music, and gained him many more devoted followers in Latin America. He recorded many charting albums and singles, and toured extensively. In 1974 he decided to move to Tahiti, exploring Polynesian music while performing throughout Southeast Asia. Ciari fell in love with a fashion model while touring Japan, and subsequently moved to that country and married her. Ciari and his new wife started a family immediately, having two children within a few years of their wedding.
Japanese law at the time stipulated that children of a Japanese father automatically became Japanese citizens, while children of a foreign father were deemed foreign nationals. This archaic rule and the labyrinthine Japanese bureaucracy regarding children's rights outraged Ciari, and he decided the best way he could change things was to run for political office. He took Japanese citizenship, then campaigned to enter the upper house of government -- somewhat akin to running for the U.S. Senate -- and used the opportunity to, in his words, "make a big fuss using newspaper, magazines, radio, and TV." He received a solid 300,000 votes, but did not win the seat; however, his case became a cause célèbre, and eventually the offending law was removed. Claude Ciari has recorded more than 50 albums, and has contributed to many film and television soundtracks, working multiple times with composers Francis Lai and Bernard Gérard, and he continues to appear on television shows in Japan. He has not performed in France in almost 30 years, but hopes to return in the near future. ~ Laurie Mercer, All Music Guide
Historic Losses on Wall Street Despite Late Rally
FOXbusiness.com October 10, 2008
Stock markets around the world were in freefall-mode on Friday amid the worsening credit crisis.
The losses were headlined by Japan's Nikkei 225 index, which plummeted 881.06 points, or 9.6%, to 8276.43. The Nikkei suffered its worst one-week percentage loss since the crash of October 1987.
Europe continues to feel the pain, with London's FTSE 100 also posting its worst week since October 1987 and falling below the 4000 level for the first time since 2003. The index closed down 381.74 points, or 8.85%, to 3932.06.
Erasmus statue comes home after 400 years
japan Times June 29, 1998
A wooden statue of Dutch humanist scholar Desiderius Erasmus (1466-1536) is back in his native Netherlands for a special exhibition after nearly 400 years in Japan.
According to Tsutomu Yamamoto, conservator of the statue collection at the Tokyo National Museum, the statue arrived in Japan aboard the Liefde, which set sail June 27, 1598, becoming the first Dutch ship to reach Japanese shores.
The ship, owned by a Rotterdam-based trading firm, arrived in Usuki Bay in Kyushu's Bungo (now the city of Usuki, Oita Prefecture) on April 29, 1600, after drifting at sea. Of its 110-member crew, only 24 survived, including its English captain, William Adams, who later became a commercial agent, informant and interpreter for the first Tokugawa shogun, Ieyasu. Later, the statue came under the ownership of Ryukoin Temple in Sano, Tochigi Prefecture.
For a long time, it was believed the wooden statue was made in Japan. But starting in the Taisho Era (1912-1926), it came to be regarded as having an association with Christianity based on the design of the clothing worn by the figure.
When a photograph of the statue was displayed in Italy in a 1926 exhibition of items related to the propagation of Christianity, a Dutch researcher recognized it as a statue of Erasmus.
Press shows at assembly, so mayor doesn't
Japan Times March 5, 2010
The mayor of Akune, Kagoshima Prefecture, refused to attend a city assembly meeting Thursday because reporters were sitting in the gallery.
On Jan. 4, Mayor Shinichi Takehara banned reporters from newspapers and news agencies from covering the city's first day of work this year, restricting coverage to several broadcasters.
He also refused to allow news footage of City Hall at the end of the month.
"I have asked the (assembly chairman) not to allow (media) firms that ignored the notice of January and did shooting (at City Hall) to shoot images at the assembly," the mayor said Thursday.
"I won't attend unless (my request) is accepted," he said.
On Thursday, assembly members were scheduled to discuss the budget proposal for the fiscal year starting on April 1 at 10 a.m.
But the mayor and his senior officers refused to appear in the chamber.
In preparing this issue’s article on World War II torpedoes, we received invaluable help from the Naval Undersea Museum, which documents and preserves the history of submarines, torpedoes, mines, and related technologies. Among its holdings the museum has copies of wartime correspondence between Albert Einstein and the Navy’s Bureau of Ordnance (BuOrd) on ways to improve torpedo design and performance. The letters (whose originals are in the National Archives) afford fascinating glimpses of how a longtime pacifist and theoretician applied his powerful mind to the practical business of building devices of destruction.
Wartime letters show how the titan of theoretical physics worked to improve the torpedoes used by the U.S. Navy
BuOrd’s Lt. Stephen Brunauer solicited Einstein’s help in May 1943. The next month Einstein came up with his first suggestion, a way to make a torpedo detonate just as it passed beneath a ship’s keel. In Einstein’s scheme a pair of electromagnetic coils at the front and rear of the torpedo would be connected in series with an electromagnet between them. The two coils would have opposite magnetic polarity, so when the torpedo was far from the target ship, the induced current between them would be zero for reasons of symmetry. As the torpedo approached the ship, the hull’s magnetic field would start to be felt. Since the field would be stronger at the front of the torpedo than at the rear, it would induce a current. Then when the torpedo passed beneath the keel, the fields from either side of the hull would cancel each other out, and the current would briefly dip to zero, setting off the detonator.
In August Einstein turned his attention to torpedoes detonated by contact rather than magnetic impulses. He explained why the explosive charge in such torpedoes should be placed at the front instead of the rear and suggested a protruding hollow tip, possibly armed with a projectile, to increase the likelihood of puncturing the hull instead of just shaking it. But contact detonation raised a new problem: The force of a violent collision with the hull could crush the head of the torpedo before detonation was completed.
In October Einstein suggested a possible way around this difficulty: Put the explosive in the rear of the torpedo and rotate it after impact to bring the business end closer. At first he thought the increased water speed right next to a ship’s moving hull would do the trick. Two months later, though, he decided that even if his idea could be made to work, the turning forces would destroy the torpedo. Once again he proposed adding a small empty space at the front. It would crumple before the rest of the head, buying a few extra thousandths of a second to give the explosive time to detonate properly. (Navy engineers eventually solved the problem by redesigning the contact detonator’s firing pin.)
Besides showing the thought processes of a genius at work, the letters reveal Einstein’s essential humanity just as effectively as the famous pictures of him sticking out his tongue and playing the violin. History’s greatest physicist can be seen expressing contempt for “snobbish people” in the military bureaucracy, struggling with the English language (“The metal container, mainly through his inertia, is …”), and like everyone else who writes a date in early January, mistakenly putting down the old year, crossing out the last digit, and increasing it by one.
Elsewhere the correspondence is reminiscent of the lecture a prominent physicist once gave at Brookhaven National Laboratory in which he recalled his train ride to a scholarly conference years before. Every few minutes the lecturer said something like “At the next stop Heisenberg [or Bohr or Schrödinger or whoever] got on, and he said… .” At the conclusion of the talk one member of the audience shook his head in mock disgust and said, “What a name-dropper!” Einstein achieves something of the same effect with offhand references to such luminaries as “my colleague Neumann” (John Von Neumann), “Gamov” (George Gamow, a rising star in nuclear physics), and Vannevar Bush.
Most of all, Einstein’s letters, filled with hasty sketches and rough calculations, show how easily he could set aside his relativity theory and discussions of God shooting dice to work on practical inventions. The old patent examiner knew how to analyze his devices for flaws and make them stand up to real-world conditions. As Thomas P. Hughes wrote in these pages in 1991, “Judging from his use of physical metaphors in his scientific writing, his preference for visual thinking, and his familiarity with inventions, it is safe to assume that he fully recognized the similarity between the intellectual activity of the creative scientist and that of the creative inventor… . For Einstein a hard-and-fast line between technology and science simply did not exist.” The Naval Undersea Museum can be reached at P.O. Box 408, Keyport, WA 98345.
Albert Einstein Timeline - The Princeton Years
Albert Einstein - Biographical Timeline
1933 Declares that he will not return to Germany Resigns from Prussian Academy of Sciences
Spends spring and summer in Belgium and Oxford
Emigrates to U.S. in September
Why War? published
1934 Collection of essays The World As I See It published
1935 The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox is published
1936 Elsa Einstein dies
1938 Publication of The Evolution of Physics
1939 Signs famous letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt recommending U.S. research on nuclear weapons
1940 Acquires U.S. Citizenship
1943 Works as consultant with the Research and Development Division of the U.S. Navy Bureau of Ordnance, section Ammunition and Explosives
1944 Handwritten copy of his 1905 paper on special relativity auctioned for six million dollars in Kansas City, as a contribution to the American war effort
1945 Shattered by the extent of the Holocaust of European Jewry
Shocked by the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
1946 Becomes chairman of the Emergency Committee for Atomic Scientists
Expresses public support for the formation of a world government
1947 Intense activity on behalf of disarmament and world government
1948 Supports creation of the State of Israel
First wife, Mileva Maric, dies in Zurich
Intact aneurysm of the abdominal aorta disclosed
1949 Publication of "Autobiographical Notes"
1950 Signs Last Will and Testament: Otto Nathan and Helen Dukas named co-trustees
The Hebrew University named as the ultimate repository of his personal papers
Collection of essays, Out of My Later Years, published
1952 Offered presidency of the State of Israel
1953 Public support for individuals under investigation by the House Un-American Activities Committee
1955 Co-signs the Russell-Einstein Manifesto warning of the nuclear threat
Rupture of the aortic aneurysm
Dies April 18 at 1:15 AM in Princeton Hospital at the age of 76
Body cremated and ashes scattered at an undisclosed place
US to attend Hiroshima memorial for first time
FRANCE 24 (03 August 2010)
Sixty-five years after a mushroom cloud rose over Hiroshima, the United States will for the first time send an envoy this Friday to commemorate the bombing that rang in the nuclear age.
Its World War II allies Britain and France, both declared nuclear powers, will also send their first diplomats to the ceremony in the western Japanese city in a sign of support for the goal of nuclear disarmament.
Japan, the only country that has ever been attacked with atomic bombs -- first on August 6, 1945 in Hiroshima, and three days later in Nagasaki -- has pushed for the abolition of the weapons of mass destruction ever since.
United Nations Secretary General Ban Ki-moon, who arrives in Japan on Tuesday, will be the first UN chief to attend the ceremony.
UN spokesman Martin Nesirsky said Ban wanted to draw attention to "the urgent need to achieve global nuclear disarmament".
In Japan, a pacifist nation since its WWII surrender six days after the Nagasaki bombing, memories of the nuclear horror still run deep.
"Little Boy", the four-tonne uranium bomb detonated over Hiroshima at 8:15 am, caused a blinding flash and a fireball hot enough to melt sand into glass and vaporise every human within a one mile (1.6 kilometre) radius.
An estimated 140,000 people died instantly as the white-hot blast turned the city centre into rubble and ash, and in the days and weeks afterwards from burns and radiation sickness caused by the fallout dubbed the "black rain".
The death toll from the second bomb, the plutonium weapon dubbed "Fat Man" that hit Nagasaki on August 9, has been estimated at 70,000.
Japan surrendered on August 15, ending World War II in the Pacific.
The United States has never apologised for the twin attacks which, surveys show, most Americans believe were necessary to bring a quick end to the war and avoid a land invasion that could have been more costly.
Others see the attacks as unnecessary and perhaps experimental atrocities.
The US ambassador to Japan, John Roos, is due to attend and lay a wreath "to express respect for all of the victims of World War II", the US State Department said.
Since the end of the Cold War, worries have grown about the nuclear ambitions of states such as North Korea and Iran, and the threat of "non-state actors" such as militant groups getting the bomb.
US President Barack Obama outlined his long-term goal of a world free of nuclear weapons in an April 2009 speech in Prague that was cited as a key factor in his winning the Nobel Peace Prize.
"The existence of thousands of nuclear weapons is the most dangerous legacy of the Cold War," Obama said, stressing that "generations lived with the knowledge that their world could be erased in a single flash of light".
Pointing to the danger of terrorist groups acquiring the deadly technology, Obama said that "in a strange turn of history, the threat of global nuclear war has gone down, but the risk of a nuclear attack has gone up".
A year later, in April this year, Obama signed a nuclear arms reduction treaty with Russia and hosted a 47-nation summit that pledged to stop militant groups from acquiring fissile materials.
Many in Japan expect Obama to become the first US president in office to visit Hiroshima when he travels to Japan in October for an Asia-Pacific summit, after he earlier signalled an intention to do so.
The group Mayors for Peace, which now counts 4,069 local governments worldwide, last week reiterated its call on nations to immediately start talks for an international treaty to eliminate all nuclear weapons by 2020.
Two decades after the Cold War ended, the United States and Russia still have more than 22,000 nuclear warheads between them, and France, Britain, China, India, Pakistan and Israel have a combined total of about 1,000, says the International Commission on Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament.
The global stockpile has a blast capacity of 150,000 Hiroshima bombs.
This was their finest hour
The This was their finest hour speech was delivered by Winston Churchill to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom on 18 June 1940. It was given just over a month after he took over as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom at the head of an all-party Coalition government.
"....However matters may go in France or with the French Government or with another French Government, we in this island and in the British Empire will never lose our sense of comradeship with the French people. If we are now called upon to endure what they have suffered we shall emulate their courage, and if final victory rewards our toils they shall share the gains, aye. And freedom shall be restored to all. We abate nothing of our just demands—Czechs, Poles, Norwegians, Dutch, Belgians, all who have joined their causes to our own shall be restored.
What General Weygand has called the Battle of France is over. I expect that the Battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilisation. Upon it depends our own British life, and the long continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury and might of the enemy must very soon be turned on us. Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be freed and the life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands.
But if we fail, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new dark age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science. Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves, that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, This was their finest hour."
Winston Churchill; "Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat" - May 13, 1940
The History Place
".......Sir, to form an Administration of this scale and complexity is a serious undertaking in itself, but it must be remembered that we are in the preliminary stage of one of the greatest battles in history, that we are in action at many points in Norway and in Holland, that we have to be prepared in the Mediterranean, that the air battle is continuous and that many preparations have to be made here at home. In this crisis I hope I may be pardoned if I do not address the House at any length today. I hope that any of my friends and colleagues, or former colleagues, who are affected by the political reconstruction, will make all allowances for any lack of ceremony with which it has been necessary to act. I would say to the House, as I said to those who have joined the government: "I have nothing to offer but blood, toil, tears and sweat."
We have before us an ordeal of the most grievous kind. We have before us many, many long months of struggle and of suffering. You ask, what is our policy? I will say: It is to wage war, by sea, land and air, with all our might and with all the strength that God can give us; to wage war against a monstrous tyranny, never surpassed in the dark and lamentable catalogue of human crime. That is our policy. You ask, what is our aim? I can answer in one word: victory; victory at all costs, victory in spite of all terror, victory, however long and hard the road may be; for without victory, there is no survival. Let that be realized; no survival for the British Empire, no survival for all that the British Empire has stood for, no survival for the urge and impulse of the ages, that mankind will move forward towards its goal. But I take up my task with buoyancy and hope. I feel sure that our cause will not be suffered to fail among men. At this time I feel entitled to claim the aid of all, and I say, "Come then, let us go forward together with our united strength."
In 1716 Tokugawa Yoshimune would rise to power. He made many economic reform and spearheaded efforts to revive the martial side of the samurai. By this time the samurai were barely worthy of the name of warriors. Yoshimune also set up the 'Oniwaban' group of ninjas. They were not an espionage unit, but an internal security unit. Yoshimune was not the first shogun to come up with the idea of a internal security unit, but he was the one that popularized it.
An Onibawan agent was not a secret agent. His role was kind of a cross between a FBI agent and an ambassador. His role was very high profile in the court of the daimyo he was sent to serve. While he could not hide in the shadows like the ninja of old, it was very hard for the daimyo to plot anything while he was constantly around and keeping his eyes open. His role as a representative of the central powers may have made him less easy to fit into a disguise, but it did insure a degree of safety from harm. . These Oniwaban were rarely antagonistic to the lords they were sent to look over. They were very keen on maintaining good relations with everyone.
Ninjas in the past entered into enemy territory to map and survey things. The Bansenshukai lists things like how to estimate the height of buildings and width of things like rivers and moats by means of a form of geometry. Distance on a road could be kept by knowing how to count steps and convert them into standard measurements. A ninja could walk through a province and come out with a fairly accurate map of the area and survey the castles by entering using stealth.
However, the Onibawan of the Edo period stood over the surveyors and took notes while they worked and openly sent maps and such that they had gathered to the shogunate. All work on fortifications had to be approved and monitored by the representatives of the shogun, and they took very accurate notes while any such surveying and building was going on. On occasion, the Onibawan took on the role of an investigative agent. But that was all very overt in its nature. Sometimes the shogunate wished to destroy particularly troublesome clans and needed an excuse gathered by the Onibawan to do so. But more often the shogunate feared the result of large numbers of samurai suddenly forced into ronin status and so they worked with the clans elders to seek out and correct problems before they occurred. In some cases, what was good for the clan was not the best thing for the lord in power and sometimes clans would force their own corrupt daimyos to retire and make way for their heirs.
The Reality of Brasilia
Brasília was a failure in many ways. The city did not turn out the way the planners intended and is not thought of very highly by either its own inhabitants or other Brazilians. The construction of the city produced a debt of over 2 billion dollars. Massive inflation in the 1960's, fueled by the proliferation of paper money, gave the military a good reason to take over the government and ruled Brazil from 1964 to 1985.
Many of Costa's ideas for the Pilot Plan were failures from the beginning. They may have been good ideas in theory, but in reality they could never work. There has been a recent gentrification in much of the Pilot Plan, putting the housing there even further out of reach of the common worker than before. The superblocks, intended to be small communities in themselves, foster almost none of the community Costa and Niemeyer intended. The complaints against the buildings themselves is that there is no individuality to them, and that the apartments themselves are unchangeable.
There is very little casual social interaction in the Pilot Plan. There are no convenient meeting places, therefore people must arrange for meetings in their own homes, a very undesirable location for both parties involved. The Pilot Plan was built for the unrestricted movement of the automobile, therefore it is without street corners. The traditional street corner society is dead and there are no urban crowds in Brasília. New residents in the city are easily disoriented because of the lack of visual cues with which to navigate about the city with. Trying to find a particular address can be difficult because so much of the city looks the same.
Costa had intended the intersection of the two axis to have an area which would be much like the streets of Venice, with pedestrians strolling about and vendors hawking their goods. Kubitschek was in such a hurry to build Brasilia that this intimate part of the Plan was ommitted in the construction of the city, taking away any hopes of a truly pedestrian area in Brasília.
Brasília was a city built for the car, not the pedestrian. Accident rate in the Pilot Plan are five times higher than rates in North America. There are few opportunities for people to walk anywhere because the city has only superhighways. Crossing these highways is especially dangerous for the pedestrian. Although there are some underground crosswalks, they are poorly lit and a haven for muggers. It is estimated that at least one person a week is struck and killed attempting to cross a highway(Wright and Turkienicz, 1988).
A major complaint among residents of the Pilot Plan is that they have only home and work. There are no centralized meeting places for leisure time. The city is very divided into sectors, and there are almost no multi-use areas. There are sectors for everything, like embassies, police departments, fire departments, government car repair shops, private car repair shops, sports facilities, warehouses, military activities, clubs, schools and churches. Travel between these sectors can be very difficult, especially for a pedestrian. Most government buildings have their own shops and restaurants, but, because of the nature of the city, if a service is not available in the building, it could be several miles away. This strict division of the city discourages the casual errand, making the city a difficult place to live in.
There have been some attempts to make Brasília a more congenial city. Vendors often travel around with carts or bikes, selling their goods in superblocks and other areas, but this helps only a small bit in the attempt to make Brasília a nicer place to live.
Brasília is widely known as the "three day city" (Brunn and Williams, 1993), as many of its wealthier workers spend only Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday working in Brasília, and then jet to the more social cities like Rio and Sao Paulo for extended weekends. This only furthers the view of Brasília as an unpopular city. For one Brazilian's critique of Brasília, click here.
Brasília was a success on two fronts. Firstly, the construction of the city unified Brazil and provided Brazilians with a source of pride and a symbol of hope. The speed necessary to construct the city in the short amount of time allowed focused the countrys energy and showed Brazilians what they were capable of. There now seems to be a shift from Brasília being the core of the Federal District to it becoming more of the symbolic capital city it was intended to be as the satellite towns grow more and more self-sufficient of the Pilot Plan(Wright and Turkienicz, 1988). Soon, Brasília might become a suburb of the satellite towns it spawned. Secondly, Brasília's location was an even greater success. The city not only connected the rest of the country together with it's central location and superb highwy network, but it provided a growth center for Brazil to expand westward and to tap it's vast interior resources.
Overall, Brasília was a failure. Perhaps the greatest criticism of Brasília is that it is a culturally inappropriate city. Brasília is based upon European ideas, not Brazilian ones. Brasília was built for the automobile in a society where the automobile is still a status symbol. The social disparities clearly evident in Brazilian society are much to great for any idealistic city to overcome. The modernist view that an ideal city would produce an ideal society is clearly objectional, the modernist view did not take into account the human aspect a city, and therefore failed. To quote Paul Forster in "Capital of Dreams", "Perhaps if they had taken note of Frank Lloyd Wright, who wrote in 1932 that 'Architectural values are human values or they are not valuable', the city would be more suitable for pleasant living rather than efficient working."(Forster, 1986).
Quake jolts central Japan
FREE LIBRARY December 26, 2006
An earthquake with a preliminary magnitude of 4.9 jolted central Japan early Tuesday, but there were no immediate reports of injuries or damage, the Meteorological Agency said.
The quake struck at 5:17 a.m. and shook Niigata prefecture (state) and other areas in central Japan. It was centered near Sado Island in the Sea of Japan at a depth of about 19 miles. No tsunami warnings were issued, the agency said.
A magnitude-6.8 earthquake hit Niigata in October, killing 40 people and damaging thousands of homes. It was the deadliest to hit Japan since 1995, when a magnitude-7.2 quake killed 6,433 people in the western city of Kobe.
A magnitude-5 earthquake can potentially cause considerable damage.
Japan sits atop four tectonic plates and is one of the most earthquake-prone countries in the world.
The story of the Soga brothers - Juro and Goro - is another popular theme in Japanese culture based on a real event in feudal Japan from 1193. It is all about vendetta - revenge.
The images on this page are link-sensitive and take you to other articles or web sites in which you might be interested.
Vendetta and Honor Apart from a confusing number of names and some side lines, the story is basically rather straightforward. And the end is like in an Italian nineteenth century opera. The chief characters are all dead - but "honor" was restored. Indeed, a very Japanese story - still popular in Japan today.
Historical Background of the Soga Brothers Story
Japan had been ruled by an emperor, a member of the Fujiwara family, since the 7th century. During the 12th century two other strong family clans came into the game - the Minamato and the Taira. The Minamato are also called Genji and the Taira clan is also known as the Heike or Heishi.
First the Minamato and the Taira kicked the Fujiwara emperor out of power. When he was neutralized to a purely representational figure, the Minamato and the Heike families could finally concentrate on fighting against each other. First the Minamato had the upper hand. But in 1159 the Heike under their leader Kiyomori defeated them and chased them out of the capital Kyoto.
The Minamato Defeat over the Taira After the death of Kiyomori in 1181 the tide turned again. The Minamato got the final upper hand in the decisive naval battle of Dannoura of 1185. Their leader Yoritomo established himself as the uncontested military ruler of Japan - the Shogun.
In the following years, the reckless Yoritomo unified and pacified the land - basically by having everyone executed who looked like having one ounce of Taira blood in his veins or whom he considered to be a potential danger for his power like his own brothers Yoshitsune and Noriyori.
The Assassination of Kawazu Sukeyasu
The Ito clan with Ito Jiro Sukechika as head of the family was allied with the Heike. Ito had a son, Kawazu Saburo Sukeyasu, an active Sumo wrestler. One day Kawazu Sukeyasu was murdered by his cousin Kudo Suketsune in the mountains of Hakone.
The murdered Kawazu Sukeyasu left two young sons, at that time three and five years old. From now on the story has a few different versions about an intrigue to behead the two young children at a beach. The murderer feared the possibility of a later revenge - not without reasons. But somehow the lives of the two young lads were spared.
The widow of the murdered Kawazu Sukeyasu later married again - a man named Soga. Soga adopted the elder son Juro Sukenari. The younger brother, Goro Tokimune was sent to a Buddhist temple to become a monk. Sending unwanted people to a cloister was a common practice - not only in Japan. There are numerous similar stories in European history.
The Hunting at Mount Fuji
But the two brothers had other plans than singing holy mantras. They wanted to revenge their father and they had secretly trained themselves for this moment.
One day the opportunity for the avenge of their father had come. Kudo Suketsune was outside his mansion on a hunting session hosted by the Shogun Yoritomo.
When Juro Sukenari got aware that their chance for revenge had come, he grabbed a horse and rode like mad to Oiso, the place where his younger brother Goro was kept as a monk.
The story now gets a little bit twisted with a marriage arranged by the mother of the two boys. Anyway, while the preparations for the marriage were still going on, the two brothers managed to sneak out of the mansion during the night, while a heavy storm was raging the region.
Juro and Goro made it to the hunting camp at the slopes of Mount Fuji, found Kudo Suketsune in a tent and killed him. There are again different versions about the circumstances. In one version Kudo Suketsune was drunk, in another in the company of a prostitute. But maybe both versions are correct.
Two Dead Heroes
The whole camp was in uproar and a fight broke out between the retainers of the slain Suketsune and the two brothers. The elder Juro was killed in this fight and the younger Goro was captured by a sumo wrestler named Goromaru. Shogun Yoritomo had to make a decision and it was not a good one for Goro. It was not his day - he was executed.
In the Kabuki play version, the death of the Soga brothers is seen under a positive light. Shogun Yoritomo condemned Goro, but at the same time he honored the brother's deed by reinstalling their mother as the legitimate owner of her late husband's estate.
Goro was 20 and Juro 22 years old when they died. Fortunately the two Soga brothers had no children. Thus the story has at least no continuation - with a new vendetta and more "honor" and more blood and madness.
Michael Ryan and the Hungerford Massacre
Crime & Investigation Network
An only child, Michael Robert Ryan was born on 18 May 1960 in the Savernake hospital, Hungerford. His father, Alfred Henry Ryan, a government building inspector, was known for being a perfectionist and was 55 when Ryan was born.
His mother, Dorothy Ryan, was over 20 years younger than her husband and was 34 when she had her only son. She was a respected and popular member of the community and used to work as a dinner lady at the Hungerford Primary School before becoming a part-time waitress at the Elcot Park Hotel, where she worked for 12 years, until her death.
Ryan grew up in South View, Hungerford and relatives remembered him as a quiet, mostly sullen and quite self-centred boy. His favourite toy was Action Man, the commando-type plastic doll, kitted out with uniforms and weapons. Short for his age, Ryan was often teased and bullied but never retaliated and consequently avoided other children. At age 11, he moved from the local primary school opposite his home, to the John O’Gaunt Secondary School, where he underachieved academically and would often play truant. He had a few friends but always shied away from any sporting or social events at school.
At age 16, he left John O’Gaunt School to attend a technical college, the Newbury College of Further Education, intending to learn to become a building contractor. Although he tried hard, it soon became apparent that Ryan showed no flair for this trade and soon dropped out of college. He found low-paid work as a caretaker at a girls’ school. Continuing to live with his parents, his doting and indulgent mother would pay for anything he could not afford, including cars, petrol, insurance, and even his first gun, an air rifle.
When Ryan was old enough, he purchased a shotgun and began to collect other weapons, which he proudly displayed in a glass cabinet in his bedroom. It seemed that the guns gave Ryan the feeling of power and control that he had always lacked. He would also brag to people about things he had not done, in a string of lies that made him seem far more capable and experienced than he actually was. He told people he had served in the Second Parachute Regiment of the British armed forces, that he was getting married, and that he owned a gun shop. He would become extremely angry if people did not believe him and his mother would often confirm these lies to people, in a desperate effort to help her son feel better.
Besotted with the military, Ryan bought army jackets, survival gear and masks. He even persuaded the police to grant him a licence to own more powerful firearms. They were unable to refuse him as he had no record of mental instability and no criminal record. However, they stipulated that Ryan install a suitable Chubb steel cabinet in which to safely lock his weapons. He subscribed to magazines on survival skills and guns, including ‘Soldiers of Fortune’, and was a fan of violent films such as ‘Rambo: First Blood’ (1982).
Ryan was 25 when his father died of cancer in 1985. The loss affected him profoundly and he became increasingly withdrawn, often going off alone to the shooting range, or working on cars. It was during this time that he lost his caretaker job. People later commented that his mental instability became increasingly apparent following the death of his father.
A few moths before the massacre, Ryan joined the Tunnel Rifle and Pistol Club, in Wiltshire. The manager later reported that Ryan spent a lot of time at the club and that he was “a very good shot”, showing consistent accuracy over large distances.
Two Birthdays of Alexander Litvinenko
■ August 30, 1962
The son of a doctor, Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko was born in the Russian city of Voronezh on August 30 1962. After leaving school in 1980 he was drafted into the Soviet Army as a private, but rapidly rose through the ranks to lieutenant-colonel. In 1988 he joined the KGB, working in counter-intelligence. His next posting was to a unit, working jointly with the Moscow police, established to combat organised crime.
■ December 4, 1962
The Sunday Times
Alexander Litvinenko, former officer of the Russian secret service, was born on December 4, 1962. He died on November 23, 2006, aged 43
Crime clean-up war criminals
Japan bears a large group of people who knew sinful war crimes, could not escape punishment, the emperor announced surrender brandished a knife before committing suicide. Arrest from September 11, 1945 began, the first batch came out on top of the figure is Tojo. After consideration after thinking he was ready to commit suicide, and your doctor determine the location of the heart, with the ink marks made in the chest. When U.S. soldiers arrested him, he shot himself. But the bullet did not hit the nail on the head soon to be saved.
The cause of Yoritomo's death.
Minamoto-no Yoritomo who started Kamakura shogunate government died on January 13, 1199, when he was 53. On December 27, 1198, Yoritomo had been to a completion ceremony of a bridge. It means his death was suddenly.
The cause of his death has been thought as a mysterious death. Because an article about Yoritomo's death wasn't written in the history book 'Azuma Kagami' that was edited by Kamakura shogunate government officially. A lot of drama was written about his mysterious death. This play, 'The Death of Yoritomo' is one of them.
Yoritomo's death was officially explained as the result that he fell from his horse. When he comes back from a completion ceremony of a bridge, his horse acts violently, and he fell from the horse. He got a concussion of the brain or a cerebral hemorrhalitis then.
Shogun is the leader of the warrior's class, so people thinks it is an unlikely matter. And a lot of reason that he fell from the horse was thought.
One of them is the most common, the ghost of the former emperor Antoku appears on to surprise Yoritomo. Antoku, a grandchild of Taira-no Kiyomori, was killed at the battle of Dannoura when he was 7.
The battle of Dannoura is the final battle between Genji -Minamoto clan and Heike-Tira clan in 1185. Heike clan was extinct then.
Birthdays of Fusako Shigenobu
Some people who are related to Japan's conspiracy have different birthdays. Generally speaking, however, their birthdays show conspicuous puns. And Shigenobu is not an exception.
But Shigenobu's birthday was recently changed. I have found the change recently.
Serendipity And A Man Named Vince
timesunion.com July 24, 2010
Irving Langmuir (top left), Bernard Vonnegut (top right) and Vince Schaefer. On July 12, 1946 Vince Schaefer discovered cloud seeding. Photo courtesy Schenectady Museum.
Mubarak was an instructor at the Air Academy and commanded Egypt's bomber force in the Yemen civil war in the 1960s. He was named director of the Air Academy in 1967 and given the important task of rebuilding the air force, which the Israelis had destroyed in the Six Day War of June 1967. Mubarak moved up to air force chief of staff in 1969 and commander in chief in 1972. He helped plan a successful surprise attack on Israeli forces occupying the east bank of the Suez Canal in October 1973, launching the Yom Kippur War.
President Sadat named Mubarak vice president in 1975. Sadat preferred the international spotlight to administrative work, so Mubarak took over the day-to-day running of the government, leading cabinet meetings and handling security details. He gained foreign affairs experience with many trips to other countries, including Syria, Iraq, the United States, and China. His experience was important in the talks leading to the 1978 Camp David Accords, agreements signed by Egypt and Israel that ended years of conflict.
The Rosa Parks Of The Anti-war Movement
ZNet August 19, 2005
On August 4, 2005, Mr. Bush retreated to his ranch in Crawford, Texas, for another vacation. He has spent a fifth of his time as President on vacation, and he is now poised to break a record: he will spend five weeks in Texas, which is longer than any President has spent away from the White House in at least 36 years. "Spending time outside of Washington always gives the President a fresh perspective on what's on the minds of the American people," his press secretary said. "It's a time, really, for him to shed the coat and tie and meet with folks in the heartland and hear what's on their minds."
Deputy Chief Cabinet Secretary Iwao URUMA
Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet
Date of birth: April 19, 1945
Birthplace: Oita Prefecture
June 1969 Graduated from the Faculty Law, University of Tokyo
Sep. 2008 Deputy Chief Cabinet Secretary (Aso Cabinet)
Mar.2008 Director-General of the Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis
Aug.2007 Adviser of the National Police Agency
Aug.2004 Commissioner-General of the National Police Agency
Aug.2002 Deputy Commissioner-General of the National Police Agency
May 2001 Director-General of the Community Safety Bureau, National Police Agency
Jan.2000 Chief of the Osaka Prefectural Police Headquarters
Jan.1999 Deputy Superintendent-General of the Metropolitan Public Safety Commission
Aug.1996 Chief of the Aichi Prefectural Police Headquarters
Aug.1989 Chief of the Nara Prefectural Police Headquarters
Feb.1987 Director of the Annex Research Office, Second Research Division, Research Department, Ground Staff Office, National Defense Agency
Mar.1980 First Secretary of the Embassy of Japan to the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic
July 1969 Entered the National Police Agency
Hakuho's run ends six short of record
Japan Times Nov. 16, 2010
The end was as sudden as a bolt of lightning.
Mongolian yokozuna Hakuho saw his record-chasing streak end at 63 bouts after a stunning defeat to Kisenosato at the Kyushu Grand Sumo Tournament on Monday.
Having gone undefeated the past four tournaments, Hakuho was widely expected to match and surpass Futabayama's record of 69 set from 1936-1939.
But Kisenosato had other ideas in the day's finale at Fukuoka Kokusai Center.
Hakuho got a slow jump at the faceoff and never really recovered as Kisenosato (1-1) charged forward in a relentless effort before shoving the yokozuna over the edge as the crowd went into a frenzy.
"I left an opening in my sumo today and couldn't grab the momentum," said Hakuho, who shook his head in disbelief after tumbling into the ringside seats. "I had 63 wins and I really wanted to keep the streak going. But I guess I got a little complacent. It's too bad but that's how it goes," he said.
The normally cool-under-fire Hakuho had obviously lost his composure as he tried in vain to thwart the attack with a throwing technique and inner leg trip before he was sent packing.
The 25-year-old began his remarkable winning run back in January with a victory over Bulgarian ozeki Kotooshu on the penultimate day of the New Year Grand Sumo Tournament.
Hakuho is the only yokozuna in sumo's elite makuuchi division and has completely dominated the sport since compatriot and former yokozuna Asashoryu retired in February.
He became the first man to win three consecutive titles with undefeated records at the Nagoya meet in July and surpassed Chiyonofuji's 53-bout streak en route to another perfect run at the autumn meet in September.
Hakuho, who is gunning for his 17th Emperor's Cup here, slipped to a 1-1 record at the 15-day meet. He still sits in second for consecutive wins on the all-time list.
Futabayama's record, which many have called unbreakable and comparable with Joe DiMaggio's record 56-game hitting streak that still stands today in baseball's major leagues, was set at a time when there were only two tournaments per year.
The legendary yokozuna went on a tear from the seventh day of the 1936 spring meet until he lost against Akinoumi on to the fourth day of the 1939 spring meet.
"Hakuho let him control the bout. But I have to take my hat off to Kisenosato, who wasn't afraid of a fight. I still have to say that 63 straight wins is simply magnificent. I'm even more convinced now how amazing 69 straight wins is," said Japan Sumo Association Chairman Hanaregoma.
In other bouts of note, Kotooshu (1-1) once again fell victim to Aminishiki (2-0), who sent his opponent reeling over the edge with a hard crunch seconds into the match, improving to a 15-10 career mark against the Bulgarian ozeki.
Local favorite Kaio, meanwhile, pumped up the crowd by tossing down Kotoshogiku (1-1) immediately after the faceoff to pick up his first win here.
Kim Jong-il’s Heir Attends Parade
NY Times October 9, 2010
The North Korean leader, Kim Jong-il, attended a massive military parade with his youngest son and designated successor on Sunday as the ruling Communist regime celebrated the 65th founding of its Workers’ Party.
The son, Kim Jong-un, wearing a dark suit despite his recent promotion to four-star general, watched the festivities and reviewed squads of goose-stepping troops with his 68-year-old father and other senior politicians and generals. The event was held in Kim Il-sung Square, named for Kim Jong-un’s grandfather, the founder of the North Korean state.
Video footage from the celebration in Pyongyang, the North Korean capital, showed tens of thousands of performers and soldiers arrayed in what was said to be the largest such event in the country’s history. For the first time, a few dozen Western media organizations, including some American outlets, were allowed to attend the festivities and report live from the square.
The elder Mr. Kim, who is said to be in poor health after apparently suffering a stroke in 2008, has hurried the succession of Kim Jong-un in recent weeks. At a landmark Workers’ Party meeting last month, Kim Jong-un was made a general and received two significant positions in the party..............
During the beginning of the 19th century, the idea of independence was discussed among some of the progressive lawyers and priests of the day. In 1808, the Viceroy was removed by a group of peninsulares in a bloodless coup. The areas of Guanajuato and Queretaro were mining regions, and it was here that a more aggressive stance toward independence developed because of the treatment toward the Indians in the mines. There was also a small group of intellectuals who formed the Queretaro Society and provided leadership for a revolutionary movement.
The priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla was rector of the College in Morelia and a member of the Queretaro Society. The priest was involved with teaching the Indians and believed along with the other intellectuals in the society that they had a right to Independence. This group of disenchanted criollos plotted a strike against the peninsular government to take place on October 1, 1810. Their plan was discovered on September 15, and they decided to hastily proceed with their plan. On September 16, 1810, Father Hidalgo rang the bells of the church and challenged his parishioners to regain the rights which had been taken from them by the Spanish 300 years before. So began the patriots’ fight for liberty with “EI Grito de Dolores.” On October 19, 1810, Father Hidalgo abolished slavery and the payment of tribute for the Indian.
Mexico's first Declaration of Independence and Constitution was adopted by the Congress of Chipancingo in 1814. Father Morelos, a mestizo priest and intellectual, continued the leadership of the Independence movement after the capture and death of Father Hidalgo. The Constitutional army was no match for the Viceroy's forces however, and Father Morelos was also captured and executed in 1815.
The Independence movement had begun, and the complete authority Spain had enjoyed earlier would never be possible again.
Famous Short People
It is interesting to note that some of the greatest people on earth have not been the towering and intimidating personalities we would imagine them to be. In fact, there are many famously short people, who have had an indelible impact on the world. They exemplify the fact that height is neither a barrier nor a ladder to success, unlike what is believed by many. This article brings you details on some people with a relatively short height, who scaled great success in their life and became an inspiration for many. Read on to know about the famous short people in the world history.
Popular Short People In History
Genghis Khan, who consolidated the largest empire in history - the Mongol Empire, was just 5 ft 1 inch tall. He was known to be one of the best commanders and ferocious warriors of the world. Under his auspices and leadership, the Mongol Empire expanded to several parts of Central Asia and China.
Yuri Gagrin, an astronaut from Russia, was the first person to travel in space and also the first one to orbit the earth. He was only 5 ft 2 inches tall. Yuri was awarded the highest civilian distinction of Soviet Federation, ‘Hero of the Soviet Union.’ His heroic feat made him immortal in the memory of the entire world.
Mahatma Gandhi, also known as the Father of Indian Nation, played a leading role in the Indian National Movement and won independence for the country. Just 5 feet 3 inches tall, Mahatma Gandhi is one of the most prominent personalities to have been seen by the world. His humble personality and strong determination even impressed the British colonizers.
Pablo Picasso, the most popular painter of the world, was just 5 feet 4 inches tall. This small wonder worked wonders in his paintings, which are considered to be masterpieces for all times to come. Some of the best artistic works of the 20th century can be attributed to this Spanish painter and sculptor. His creative genius has continued to fascinate the world, even decades after his death.
Yaser Arafat is considered to be the greatest Palestinian leader till date. He was the chairman of Palestinian Liberation Authority (PLA). This 5 feet 2 inches tall leader was considered by many Palestinians as a freedom fighter. Conversely, he was also looked upon as a terrorist by many. In all fairness, Yaser Arafat has been an inspirational figure for the Palestinians.
Francois-Marie Arouet, popularly known as Voltaire, was a celebrated French writer and philosopher known for his witty and humorous works. Though he was only 5 feet 3 inches tall, Voltaire was certainly one of the tallest figures in French history. He was an enthusiastic advocate of civil liberties, with his works reflecting beautifully on his ideology.
James Madison was the first president of United States, who assumed office from March 1809 and continued till 1817. He was 5 ft 4 inches tall. Madison is considered to be one of the founding fathers of United States. He worked in tandem with George Washington to organize the Federal Government.
Tokyo DisneySea Project (1988 to 2001)
On October 22, 1998, a groundbreaking ceremony was held on site attended by approximately 90 participants, where members of both Oriental Land and The Walt Disney Company ceremoniously struck hoes into the ground to mark the beginning of construction work. After the ceremony, a joint press conference was held at an adjacent location attended by then President Toshio Kagami of Oriental Land and then Chairman Michael Eisner of The Walt Disney Company, at which further details of Tokyo DisneySea were made known. At the same time, the name “Tokyo Disney Resort” was first announced for the area in Maihama encompassing the two Parks, the hotels, and a shopping complex.